- Americas: GE and Siemens (70% market control
- Europe: GE, Degremont, Veolia (60% market share) and Lenntech, Eimco, and Norit
- Middle East & Africa: GE, Septech, Al Tamimi, (growth of market because of expansion)
- Asia- Pacific: None of the top tier companies have a substantial presence: however GE, Siemens, Degremont, and Veolia have regional offices for early entrants.
What people can do when they focus on an extreme goal is truly amazing. David Blaine held his breath underwater for 17 minutes and 4 seconds on national television on the Oprah Show in 2010, and he contributes all of his perpetration and health record to science research. David Blaine is a magician and stuntman, so most thought is a trick. However, his talk at the TED conference in 2010 takes you second my second through Blaine’s preparation and execution. Discovering that past 6 minutes of no oxygen brain damage occurs, attempting to constantly flush his blood to increase oxygen levels, attempting to insert a rebreather with a Co2 scrubber into his lungs; Blaine began to see that there was no way to establish an illusion of holding your breath. So he turned to free diving and static apnea (holding your breath in one place without moving). Learning how to purge (blow in and out, ridding your body of Co2) entering into an extremely intense diet to rid all extra weight and improve his lung capacity Blaine began to hold his breath. After four months of training his heart rate lowered to 38 beats per minute that is lower than most Olympic athletes. As a result he could hold his breath for 7 minutes at this point. In training attempts to hold his breath Blaine’s heart rate drops from 38 beats per minute to 12 beats per minute after the first minute. However when it came time to complete the stunt on television Blaine’s heart rate started at 120 beats per minute and stayed at this level for 5 minutes, and it continue to rise to 150. At 10 minutes blood shunting began to occur after 14 minutes he had an “urge to breath” his chest would uncontrollable contract, and ischemia began to set in. At the end of the day David Blaine went from being obsessed with Houdini to surpassing Houdini’s underwater record (3 min 30 sec) by the age of 8 years old to now setting the new world record for holding your breath underwater for 17 minutes and 4 seconds.
- Fire Departments Vs. Public Utilities: Numerous Utilities in North Carolina have had extensive water theft by local fire departments. When I initially heard of this argument, I thought it was a misprint, but it’s not…. Numerous fire departments have been illegally drawing water from hydrants to fill swimming pools and other non-firefighting related activities. Little do they know that North Carolina legislation states that fire departments and other water thefts can be charged $500.00 per misuse or five times the cost of water taken (which can be high). (Call with Warren Public Utility)
- According to the AWWA 08 rate study: National water and wastewater charges increased 12.3% and 15.1%, respectively, for a residential customer using 1,000 cubic feet (cf) of water a month between January 1, 2006 and July 1, 2008. During the same period, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for all urban customers increased 10.9%.
- Between 1996 and 2008, water and wastewater charges for residential customers using 1,000 ccf per month have increased 4.21% and 4.39% annually, respectively, which is greater than the annual CPI increase of 2.87% (AWWA Rate Study, 2008).
- Water and wastewater charges are highest in the Northeast while water and wastewater charges are lowest in the Midwest (AWWA Rate Study, 2008).
- Even with the charge increases, water and wastewater charges remain affordable as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency.(National Census Data).
Joseph Bergen and Nicki Huang, two graduate school students from Harvard Graduate School of Design, created an online interactive map that shows people in different locations how much water consumer goods in their region use. With the help of Pacific Institute these two students went on to develop a map that allows you to click on different countries and different consumer products to compare and contrast the embodied water content, as well as the water usage and accessibility. Moving your mouse around on the map you can compare one country profile with another country profile for products or overall water supply. Also, you can print labels for each product embodied water count and used it as a reminder of your water usage and accessibility. This project has developed into a new trend of developing a water footprint and some of the reasoning behind why are listed below
Mind-Blowing Stats on Embedded water:
- One cup of coffee has 1120 (x 50 gallons) of water per cup. = 56,000 gal
- A pair of leather shoes has 16,600 (x 50 gal’s) of water per pair= 830,000 gal
- A Microchip has 16,000 (x 50 gallon’s) of water per chip = 800,000 gal
This website is worth while checking out to give you a reality check on embodied water you unknowingly consume
Another interesting project within the same realm
Chris Hendrickson and Michael Blackhurst; two engineers from Carnegie Mellon University estimated water use among +400 industry sectors. Calculated all water inputs used for these interrelated industries to shed light on the total amount of water that goes into the manufacturing of consumer products. Their work was published in the Feb. 23, 2010 edition of the journal Environmental Science & Technology. The results were overwhelming because more water use occurs indirectly as a result of processing (packaging, shipping, etc).
.In Terms of Gallons of Water needed to produce $1 worth of consumer goods:
- Cotton 1,300
- Fruit 480
- Flour milling 470
- Electricity 450
- Vegetables and melons 280
- Sugar 270
- Chicken 250
- Dog and cat food 200
- Cattle 190
- Tortillas 140
- Milk 140
- Paint 140
1. Reasons to go see Cirque Du Soleil Guy Laliberte, founder of Cirque du Soleil, has decided to donate $100 million to the One Drop organization over 25 years. This will allow One Drop to continue expanding water projects (Haiti next stop).
Living Water International is a non-profit organization that shows you your potential impact on the environment from consumption of coffee and bottled water. It introduces the current water issues in Sub-Saharan Africa (40 billion hours of labor wasted each year in carrying water long distances). Their description of water on a Global Scale drives home issues that plague billions in the picture from the there website below.
Water.org is an extremely powerful non-profit organization that not only introduces new water issues, but they have extensive practical solutions to implement against these issues. For instance, you can choose to become involved or donate to their micro-finance loan system that aid people living in impoverished regions with the financial burden of improving their water source. They have extensive media coverage of their work because of the celebrity (Matt Damon) who has become a spokesperson for them. They have an extreme goal that aims to aid in providing everyone in the world with clean water.
The One Drop goal is to fight poverty by providing access to water and raising awareness among people and communities about the need for mobilization to make safe water accessible to all, in sufficient quantity, today, and tomorrow. One Drops’ approach is a tripod approach based on three complementary components: Technical, micro-finance, and social arts/popular education. Currently, they have active projects in Nicaragua, Honduras, Haiti, El Salvador and India.
Amman Imman: Water is Life is similar to Water.org and One Drop, but this non-profit began in 2006 by Ariane Kirtley (Fulbright scholar researching in Azawak, Niger). The program started by drilling wells then a partnership developed providing maintenance to the wells, and now it has expanded into a network of schools, food production, and development. Improving health, education, lifestyle, and efficiency among the people of Niger. Now Amman Imman is focusing on helping other water projects in Africa, the next being Azawak of West Africa (goal is to develop 50 or more cases of life across Azawak).
Relating these projects back to UC Berkeley Campus, the UC Berkeley students have begun an initiative to end the sale of plastic water bottles on campus. They have been able to remove the bottled water from all vending machines on campus, and sustainable water bottles are sold as a replacement forcing students, and faculty to reuse their water containers.
Great fact-packed NPR interview of Charles Fishman, author of “The Big Thrust.” Below are some of the fun facts that opened the interview that caught my eye
- Launch space shuttle: water on the take off platform absorbs sound so that the sound does not rip apart the space shuttle.
- Microwave oven spins water molecules to about a billion per second to heat food (why microwave pizzas are soggy)
- Power plants use five times as much water as all residents. The electricity used in homes is about 250 gallons per day while individual water consumption is only 99 gallons a day. Roughly 10 gallons of water per 1 hour of coal-based energy. 1/6 liters of water goes to leakage
Patricia Mulroy took control of Las Vegas water usage after having to see that its main source of water was from Lake Mead, is restricted by federal law to extract 300,000 acre-feet of water (lowering Lake Meade by 2-3 feet). Therefore she attempted to change the culture of the inhabitants in Las Vegas by) replacing lawns with zero-scape, making it illegal to let your sprinkler spray on a sidewalk and made it illegal to drain your swimming pool or hot tub into a storm drain. Las Vegas will even pay you $40,000 an acre to remove your lawn (depending on scale). Incentivizing zero-scape (desert landscaping use little to know the water. As a result, Las Vegas has been able to recapture almost all of its water (94% water recycling returning water back to Lake Meade). Las Vegas uses the same amount of water today as it did in 2000 despite a 50% increase in size. The golf course now have water budgets (600 million gallon and decreased by 50%) but still each whole of golf with the new regulations requires 139 gallons of water in Las Vegas.
IBM now uses water efficiency as a business tool. Ultra pure water uses a tremendous amount of water (12 steps of filtration past desalination) 2 million gallons of ultra-pure water is used per day in an IBM computer chip plant. Reconstructed their water usage in their plants and over ten years they reduced water consumption by a third but in that same period they increased chip production by a third. “The Big Thrust” is on my “to do” list just to see what other solutions and situations Charles Fishman has come across in his research on water.
Sundance Channel’s new television series Eco Trip released a new episode on the Cellphone industries impact on the environment, and it was extremely frightening. Shelia Davis, an expert at Silicone Valley Toxic Coalition, shows how the semiconductor and chip resistors business, as well as underground storage of chemicals, impacts the environment through L.U.S.T. (Leaking Underground Storage Tanks). LUST contaminates not only the site in which these products are developed but the soils beneath them and the water that runs through them. Most of these industries shut down facilities and dismantle the buildings so that other development can move in, little did we know that these locations are Superfund sites. A Superfund site is where these LUST events occur, and there has been clear documentation of the contamination and little to know clean up. The EPA now must take over the clean up of theses sites and rank the site for its impact on water contamination and soil degradation. Many neighborhoods have these contaminated sites, homes, markets, schools, and small businesses are typically exposed. The indicator that the EPA takes into consideration increase in birth defects in comparison to regional standards.
“One of the things that became immediately clear to me was that water is a truly unifying element. We all need it; we all want it and more than anything else in the world it is the one thing that connects us all,” said Irena Salina. Irena Salina director of Flow humanized international water politics by revealing the industry behind water, the discrepancies between public health and private interest unveil issues of scarcity, pollution/contamination, corporate profit and human suffering. Understanding different individual’s relationship with nature’s most critical resource, to encompass the global freshwater crisis.
FLOW chronicles the stories of people fight for their right to water: following a community of concerned citizens in Michigan as they take on a corporate water-bottling plant; showing the massive protests of the Bolivian people against water privatization; and documenting simple technology implemented across India to cope with water shortages. You may think that China, Bolivia, India, and Lesotho are far away but the issues that each has mentioned hits close to home. The Case of Atrazine usage being banned in Switzerland and used in the United States so only a glimpse into indirect impacts on Freshwater. Atrazine has been proven to cause male frogs to become female ( sperm counts dwindle, and ovaries appear).
- “For each ton of recycled paper you save 7000 gallons of water/ 17 trees/ 4200 Kilowatt-hours of energy/ 40 lbs of nitrogen emissions/ 3 cubic yards of landfill space.”
- “A person must consume 2.5 quarts of water per day from all sources (drinking, eating) to maintain health.” US EPA.
- “62,600 gallons of water are needed to produce one ton of steel.” US EPA.
- “The United States consumes water at twice the rate of other industrialized nations.” National Park Service.
- “75% of a living tree is water; 66% of human body is water; 75% of the human brain is water.” US EPA.
- “Americans flush 6.8 billion gallons of water down their toilets every day.” National Parks Service.
- “Alfalfa consumes almost 25% of California’s irrigation water, more water than any other crop in the state.” Natural Resource Defense Council.
- “The average 5-minute showers uses 15-25 gallons of water.” American Water Works Association.
- Preliminary estimates show that the total energy used to pump and treat water in California exceeds 15,00 GWH per year, or at least 6.5% of the total electricity used in the State per year.” California Department of Water Resources.
- “Leaks account for 12% of an average Californian’s daily water use.” The Pacific Institute.
- “Bottled water can cost 240-10,000 times more than tap water and may not be any more safe to drink. Around 25-35% of bottled water sold in the U.S. comes from a city or town’s tap water, sometimes further treated, sometimes note.” Natural Resources Defense Council.
- “It takes 39,090 gallons of water on average to manufacture a new car.” EPA
- “Agriculture accounts for 87% of all the freshwater consumed each year in the U.S.” Livestock Production: Energy Inputs and the Environment, by David Pimentel.
- “When the well’s dry, we know the worth of water.”Benjamin Franklin.
- “Water sustains all.” Thales of Miletus, 600B.C